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厦门印象--永定土楼

论文查重   作者:杨梓   时间:2017-11-02    阅读:


作者简介:杨梓(1991-),男,汉族,云南个旧人,云南师范大学云南华文、国际汉语教育学院,汉语国际教育在读硕士研究生,研究方向:对外汉语教学;教师教育发展;留学生管理。
 
厦门印象--永定土楼
文/杨梓
永定土楼地处福建省龙岩市,距离厦门市区约有两个多小时的路程。途中会经过漳州市。
永定土楼建于康熙四十八年(1709年)。全楼直径73米,走廊周长229.3米,高11.4米。全楼共计400个房间,称谓“土楼王”。建筑形式为圆中圆,圈套圈共有三层。历经沧桑已三百多年了,鼎盛时期住有800多人。邮电部曾发行过一组中国民居系列邮票,其中一帧邮票就选用了永定土楼的承启楼。
客家人是汉族中的一支重要民系,族祖系中原人,因战乱和灾害曾有五次较大规模的南迁,一部份辗转到了福建,即为今日的客家族。几百年前迁移到福建的中原人在这片陌生荒蛮的土地上安住下来,为了防御山野里的猛兽及未知的外来侵袭,客家人的先祖们创想出就地取黄土夯筑成一层层土墙为外延,高十多米的圆形土楼。硕大的圆形土楼只有一个出入大门若有外部的侵袭,大门一关,万夫难开了?晌焦倘艚鹛。
一座土楼的构建完成要历经几辈人的心力、体力及财力,才能将其完善。一座土楼大抵就是一个家族,一个姓氏,也是一个小王国。几百人同住一个房檐下,一起日出而作日落而息,婚丧嫁娶子孙皆同一根系。
实见到称为“土楼王”的承启楼时并没有视觉上的冲击感,土楼被如今竭力的推崇是肯定它的建筑的硕大体积,留存的时久性及尚存的稀少性吧。就于它本身的文化蕴含的价值并没有更多的深掘和承载。至于在建筑史上对其它建筑风格,意识的影响和借鉴甚微。毕竟它的奇特性主要是为其特殊的生存环境而创建的,局限性已定格。
土楼,太圆了,太紧固了。一层一层地往内圈,连窗户都吝惜地只开几个孔。在楼内环转了一半后不由地想到,终年生活在圆房里的人,该是静闷的,也是循规守纪的。圆房外看体积很大,然而内径相互之间的距离太急促了。400间房一间紧挨着一间,静夜里两户之间的呼吸都闻于咫尺之间,一间间少有窗口的屋子叠加上山区湿闷的气候条件,让整个屋檐下显得更加晦湿。很难想象如此紧箍的屋子里还会传出爽朗的笑声,会坦露出明艳的笑脸。
不是屋子里的人不想,而是屋子的狭促使他们不能。太近了,太紧密了。人的生活环境能影响人的性格底色。大杂居,小聚居,貌似箍在一起显得很安全,其实反倒折射出人性深处的极度不安全感。出于动物的本性,在感到自身无力独立面对外界时,便紧紧地围在一起用共同的不安来消融个体的不安。
任何事物一旦形成它固有的坚固的文化特性后而固守之,那它终要面临衰退。进化的事物都是开放式的,那才具有生命的鲜活性。如此紧促生活环境让人紧闭自己真实的内心,人的本性终将会阴郁,晦涩,漠然。一切皆因,太近了。不安感更强烈,距离即是空间,人与人之间更需适当的相距,太近太紧会失去阳光的照射,大风的吹拂。而鲜有呼吸的天际终让一切窒息,枯萎,失神。土楼圆屋的建造者的终其愿望是守住,然而世间万物的规律则是逐渐演变配合着突进。
民居建筑大江南北风格迥异,私以为更喜欢徽派建筑,那份灰墙黛瓦的起伏曲线,傍于荷塘盈映,竹海绿浪,阡陌交错似一幅幅丹青水墨画,让人心清神朗。
(作者单位:云南师范大学 国际汉语教育学院)
 

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