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返璞归真,道学语境下的审美意涵

论文查重   作者:郭云嘉   时间:2017-09-29    阅读:


 
返璞归真,道学语境下的审美意涵
郭云嘉  武汉纺织大学  
摘要:《道德经》全文五千余言,文约义丰,涵盖天地,并没有刻意的对于审美角度的阐述,但笔者认为天下的知识是相通的,道学与美也有着千丝万缕的关系,在道学思想下用新的审美视角看待世界,总结出通过论述从精而简,由小入微的变迁升华之美;天道有时,纲常有序的道,以大成繁衍之美;垂手而治,与世无争的清静无为之美三种审美角度结合两种看似矛盾却并不冲突的审美观点构成了一个返璞归真的世界。
关键词:审美;返璞归真;清静无为
 
一、存在感知并感知这个世界
    已知美和丑的定义取决于人的观点,那在人的观点之上,人不存在的基础上美与丑是存在还是不存在?“水善,利万物而不争。”水是客观存在的,它是自然界中一种有形的物质,是生物生存的依赖,是大自然构成的根本,有水才能孕育生命,有水能使生命存活,这是各种学科都承认的观点!兜赖戮氛饫锝茸魃,拟人化的对水进行评价,它是善的,是美的。同样将水放大到所有的万物,万物因此都如同水一样,因为有人的定义而存在形态的美,所以不仅仅是水,所有的事物都是有着美丑之分,但是其本身并不存在什么美的概念,也就是说审美角度的根本是因为“人”的存在,人对美丑的定义才有了世界万物的定义,这种定义对人是有意义的,是一种特定的主观感受,人也是判断万物的依存,意识是美于丑之间的界定,是审美存在的基点。人不存在就不存在意识界定,也就不存在审美观点。因此人的存在是划定美的标注,是观察这个独特的道世界的精神基础。
二、独特审美观的世界构成
(一)从精而简,幼小入微的变迁升华之美
    道讲求圆满,事物运动变化所遵循的秩序、方法和规则都可以称作道, 道可道,非常道,生一一,生二二,生三三,生万物,道学一派远于周易,近于明清,从古至今人未能曾穷其究极,李耳做《道德经》试言道,虽不能达其大者,穷其无尽,然颇能为道而道,所分立身,立世,立命。春秋战国,著书立说,称家立学者不可胜数,然可以一言释天下无极,唯有道学。以道通艺,适合于当世虽有局限瑕瑜,整理采集亦颇为晦涩难明,又加其倡导轮回归真,又不反人性纲常。世界的变化,芸芸众生的千秋都在于道,由大由小,由简由繁,都是道既定的规律,也是这个独特精神世界的物质基点。
“天地不仁以万物为刍狗,圣人不仁,以百姓为刍狗。”万物虽为天地所生,但无一物为天地所无限包容。天地统治万物利用的是至诚不移的自然规律,万物的生长发育,只能遵循这一规律,因而事物存在着生死,并不可能的永恒不灭,死的存在又孕育了新生,有如植物生长受到腐烂的树叶滋养,新的生命破土萌芽的的那一刹那,这就是生克的美。
   《道德经》中把升华所需要的点定义为“朴”,载体称作“一”,《道德经》第三十九章:“昔之得一者:天得一以清,地得一以宁,神得一以灵,谷得一以盈,万物得一以生,侯王得一以为天下贞。”升华建立在“道”,也在建立在微观的认识之上,有事物新生那种欣欣向荣,也有雪融冰消那样自然超脱,这就是升华的美。
(二)天道有时,大成繁衍之美
    思考是建立在五感之上,人的自我认知的浩瀚星河是大成繁衍的第一层美,是感官建立使思考进化却凌驾于它的一种美的形式。人生如夏花短暂,先有所思,初生的思维有如白纸一般,但随着时间推演,事物发展,人也无时不刻不在思考和想象,推演计算,繁复庞杂,每一种思想,每一种解答,每一种应对,像大树上错落有致的枝叶,承载住阳光,或者倒映出辉煌,或者反射出绚烂,《道德经》十二章“是以圣人为腹不为目”感观决定了思考,却只是思考的辅助,有能力的人都可得心中所想,它们不尽相同,而只去观瞻,没有思考就没有去辨别的意义,五感的存在构成了所识所想,也使人的思考乘于其上。
    求教,学习、教育的交融,出自思考不同于思考的编织纵横之美,是大成繁衍的第二层美!兜赖戮范哒“故善人者,不善人之师;不善人者,善人之资。不贵其师,不爱其资,虽智大迷。是谓要妙。”所以那些勤于思考的人是那些认知片面人的老师;而这些请教的人,是有认知勤于思考的人的一种积淀,是想法传互的形式,不尊重教师,不愿意去听别人所想所授,虽然可能是有思考有能力的,但还是片面性的。于是思考之美的延续就是整个的寓学于教,互相容错,每个个体互相交流构成了世界的多样化,无数人的思考融合才有了社会的发展变化,“晨露有春香,万滴一海棠。”学就是每个小个体构成大世界的基础,凌驾于思考之上也离不开个人的思考。
(三)垂手而治,与世无争的清净无为之美
首在修身,“生”于立命,修就是检修,以某物为中心修行检讨,自我认知,类似于格物致知的道理,风过竹动,是竹动而风不动。事过人心,心安事自决的境界!兜赖戮肺迨恼“修之于身,其德乃真;修之于家,其德乃余;修之于乡,其德乃长;修之于国,其德乃丰;修之于天下,其德乃普。”透过修身的印证,把这种“修”推广到个人,他的思想会因此变得纯真;推及一家,他的品德就会在一家之中保留下来;把“修”推广到一乡,品德就会在一乡中成长;把“修”推广到一国,品德就会在一国中获得丰收;把“修”推广到整个天下,品德就会普及整个天下。
其次是法治,“法”并不是只法律上的法制,而是方法,对待不同的人有不同的方法,不同的温床适合不同的生物,是一种“礼”的存在,却远高于儒家的礼教,人性自由却不偏激,偏爱却不遐思,这种平易的“法”就是这个审美世界的治世之法!兜赖戮匪氖耪拢“善者吾善之,不善者吾亦善之,德善;信者吾信之,不信者吾亦信之,德信。圣人在天下,歙歙焉;为天下,浑其心。”感化于人以修身,潜移默化近无为的折中就是“法”。   
结束是无为,无为是《道德经》整书都在表达的中心思想,也是提到最多却最不被人接受的,因为其矛盾性,三十七章“道常无为而无不为。侯王若能守之,万物将自化;,吾将镇之以无名之朴。无名之朴,夫亦将不欲。不欲以静,天下将自定。”大道运行没有时间的概念和事件的弯曲,具有永恒的客观规道法自然,人法大道,最后的一切回归到了本我,时间追溯到长河的尽头,花回到了盛开的刹那,一切变得那样的自然随性,没有人去判断,没有物质的影响破坏,这是最后盼望达到的自然、闲适之美。
三、终、本性的回归
《道德经》整书都在言“道”,美也成型“道”,含蓄的精神隐喻更把华夏文明的刚柔并济体现的淋漓尽致,充分把事物由巨至小,由小入微,积微成巨那种微观循环的美;生克之间,周而复始的消融复萌之美;物质终极,量以质变,轮回有道的升华之美揉合在一起,世道就是道,人道也是道,以人为中心剖论天地,在对比的法则之下,物质的基础构成,人的精神贯穿,世间万物为“实”,伦理纲常为“实”,精神思考为“实”。人们随着精神的升华更加深入地触摸这个独特的审美世界,正因为人的辨别而存在的“美”,才使得人会去分辨他们的生长消融,更界与现实世界的联系,《道德经》始终以人自身为根本,修行感化,迁延日久的,使这种“道”更为人所接受,用接近“礼”的“法”来熏陶更多的人和事物,使他们回归到最初“无为”的状态,接受是自己的存在而存在的美,也接受其本质存在而等待去发现的精神之美,正是这种全面的概括造就了审美世界,也赋予了它这种超越的返璞归真之美。
参考文献:
[1] 老子原著.郑春兴编著.道德经[M].郑州:河南出版社,2007.
[2] 金智学.道家大智慧[M].长春:北方妇女儿童出版社,2004.8.
[3] 王振复.大易之美---周易的美学智慧[M].北京:北京大学出版社,2006.1.
 

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