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《七武士》中音乐和光线运用分析

论文查重   作者:张晓风   时间:2017-09-28    阅读:


 
《七武士》中音乐和光线运用分析
张晓风  云南师范大学传媒学院
摘要:《七武士》是黑泽明导演最优秀作品之一,获得1954年威尼斯国际电影节银狮奖。片中主要讲述了贫困的村庄为了不甘被强盗所抢掠,而寻找武士一起与强盗对抗保卫家园的故事。在片中对武士道精神有大敬仰的导演黑泽明运用艺术化的视听语言对处在消亡边缘的武士阶级、武士与农民两个阶级的对立与合作等进行了精妙的展现。
关键词:七武士;音乐;光线
一、音乐分析
自从有声电影诞生以来,声音在影视的制作中逐步凸显出超强的造型作用或者说是艺术的魅力,并且声音与画面两种造型手段的结合完全产生出“一加一大于二”的艺术魅力!镀呶涫俊分幸衾值氖褂貌坏卿秩玖嘶肪车钠,同时也对人物的形象以及情节的推动起到了重要作用。
在作品中导演对于不同的阶级(强盗、农民和武士)使用了特定的音乐效果,并且在特定的阶级的音乐中根据剧情环境需要音乐又做不同程度的改变可谓是极为的准确与艺术化。首先,片头的字幕和强盗音乐。导演在进行字幕处理时使用的是倾斜的字幕配以小鼓的低沉的音乐。倾斜的字幕本身就可以给人一种;拇嬖诘母芯,而片头字幕中小鼓低沉的音乐也是属于“强盗”阶级的特定的主旋律音乐,给受众带来不详预感推动剧情的发展,然而在字幕结束以后音乐并没有停止伴随着不详的音乐强盗出现了,调动了观众的;械那樾。其次,农民的低沉的人声吟唱音乐。如在农民得知强盗将要再次来掠夺之后,农民无奈的聚集在一起去寻找帮助,这种音乐的运用配之以消沉状态的村民,对于相对的农民的懦弱展露无余,同样在这里不但渲染气氛烘托人物形象,并且推动了情节的发展为农民寻求武士帮助做好了铺垫,以及为村民懦弱的性格特征奠定下基调。再次,武士的慷慨激昂的管乐器音乐。片中故事进行到村民在城镇中寻找武士,街道上一个个武士出现,伴之以慷慨激昂的管乐器音乐,与农民和强盗的主旋律音乐截然不同,象征着武士是力量和强大的化身。在农民寻求武士帮助失败以后,农民的惨烈的现状又伴随着农民的低沉的人声吟唱。最后,阶级主旋律之外的两个独特音乐设置。一是“菊千代”独特的音乐。菊千代是一个农民后裔的假武士,因此导演也专门为他配置与其他阶级完全不同的音乐,堪称奇妙。片中七位武士已经集结了六位,这时菊千代来到客栈,武士“平八”挑逗“菊千代”,伴随着菊千代“兽性”动态美的表演是菊千代的专属的独特的小的打击乐的音乐旋律,充满了诙谐和幽默与农民的低沉吟唱、武士的激昂的管乐和强盗低沉的鼓乐截然不同。整个菊千代欢快的音乐,也与最后菊千代“悲剧性”的死亡形成对比。二是胜四郎和志乃的爱情音乐,在这个充满以男性气息为主体的片中,音乐的运用大多是激昂或者是低沉的。而在胜四郎和志乃的爱情的场景中,则与之相应的是轻松舒缓的抒情音乐,为这部充满紧张和战争气息的片子作了些许的点缀。
二、光线分析
影视艺术是一种空间的艺术,由于它独特的空间性,使得造型性是它区别于其他艺术的鲜明的特征。在影视艺术的造型方面,光线可以说是影视造型的第一要素,人们常说“有光,才会有影”,人们的视觉感知就是靠光的存在的确没有光,就不会有影像的存在。在艺术造型方面,光又是可以对人物的性格刻画、烘托环境气氛、创造意境。在绘画艺术中,光与影也是主要的考究的方面,当然作为一个在儿时就对“绘画”有很大兴趣的黑泽明来说,光线的造型性受到他足够多的艺术化处理。
首先是在村民去寻求老爷爷的意见,这是一个智者的形象,也提议去寻找武士进行帮助。在这里导演给了老爷爷一经典的布光,就是“伦布朗布光法”[①]。这种布光的效果主要用于意志坚定的男性的智者的形象。此处黑泽明选择这样一个经典的布光方式,为这个见多识广的智者老爷爷布光。而在七位武士来到村子以后,村民们都躲起来了,此时的农民和武士两个阶级的鸿沟出现,这样的僵局建立起来了。大家集体来到了老爷爷的家里,寻求老爷爷的帮助,而老爷爷也对于两个阶级的对立无计可施,很明显这时候老爷爷的脸上已经没有了代表着老爷爷智者形象的经典的布光效果。显然,黑泽明导演的用光不仅仅是刻化一个人物的形象,也在于根据情节的发展的需要进行恰当的改变。
其次,片中大量运用了逆光的光线处理方式。逆光的拍摄可以增加一定的神秘色彩、提高视觉的冲击力、渲染气氛等。在片子开头片段,强盗的出现画面,采用的是逆光拍摄的效果,我们可以看到骑着马匹的强盗队伍的基本的轮廓,却看不到一些具体的人物细节,此刻的逆光效果为强盗的出场营造了一种神秘的恐怖的气氛?梢运,黑泽明导演在片头的强盗出场,运用了非常规的中间地平线式构图、鼓点的背景音乐以及逆光的效果,形成了一个具有冲击力的经典的视觉画面。
三、总结
一切的视听技巧都属于造型手段,只是作者情感表达的躯壳。在这部黑泽明导演的视听艺术中一切的影像的运用都服务于了导演的情感表达,黑泽明导演运用艺术化的音乐和光线语言表达出了其对当下日本武士阶级的尴尬处境的认识和无奈。
参考文献:
[1]彭吉象.影视美学[M].北京大学出版社,2012,08.
[2]张阿利,曹小晶.中国电影精品读解[M].重庆大学出版社,2011,09.
[3]袁金戈,劳光辉.影视视听语言[M].北京大学出版社,2010,09.
[4]田卉群.经典影片读解教程[M].北京师范大学出版社,2004,11.


[①] 伦布朗布光法:伦布朗是是著名的荷兰画家。伦布朗布光,主要强调侧光照明,使被拍摄者的面部任意一侧呈现一个倒三角形的光斑,主要适用于人像的特殊用光技术。

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