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从余秋雨《信客》看传统“信”文化的重要性

论文查重   作者:汪苏 汪澜   时间:2017-09-28    阅读:


 
从余秋雨《信客》看传统“信”文化的重要性
汪苏  湖南文理学院
汪澜  湖南文理学院芙蓉学院
中学语文教材人教版《义务教育课程标准实验教科书.语文八年级(上册)》(2010年版)入选了余秋雨的《信客》,省市中学语文教材苏教版八年级上册也选择了余秋雨的《信客》!缎趴汀氛馄⑽哪芙牍沂∈薪逃逑抵械挠镂慕炭剖,意味着这个作品已被权威机构认定,开始经典化。因此,对文章的解读显得尤为重要。
余秋雨大师的文化散文《信客》绘声绘色,通过叙说两代信客的不同际遇及信客这个职业在社会信息发展中的最终消亡,表现了中国传统的“信”文化在民间生活中的重大意义,并刻画了受人尊重的信客形象,赞扬了信客恪守信用,任劳任怨,无私正直,洁身自好,待人宽厚善良美好品质。
  所谓“信”,就是无“伪”意思,既不说假话,不做假事;既不自欺,亦不欺人,一切言行皆以诚实为本,排除一切虚伪、虚假。
“信”是中华民族传统文化的核心力量,为“仁义礼智信”儒家“五常”之一。儒家的创始人孔子在《论语·颜渊》中说“民无信不立。”信是儒文化的精义所在,不仅儒家,历代名家都注重“信”在社会政治和民生中的作用。
信是主观世界向客观世界发出指令的第一个道德表现。“信”的含义与“诚”、“实”相近。从字形上分析,信字从人从言,原指古时人们祭祀时对上天和先祖所说的诚实无欺之语,是古代先民用心灵和诚实敬拜的行为准则。春秋时期,经儒家的提倡,“信”开始摆脱宗教色彩,成为纯粹的道德规范。随着社会历史文化的发展,传统伦理将诚信作为人的一种基本品质,认为诚实是取信于人的良策,是处己立身,成就事业的基石。总之,是一种个人品质在人的社会属性方面的体现。
从传统文化诚信的角度出发,我们会发现大师余秋雨在组织《信客》这篇散文的过程中,确实与传统文化“信”一脉相承,他在重塑“信”,他在呼唤“信”的到来。
《信客》共有四部分,可以总结为,从业缘起,信客生涯,辞职风波,转行从教。通过这四部分的描写,分别述说了诚信文化在民间的历史发展和演化。
第一部分,以信客职业的交接表达在“遵信”的社会里,信的树立需要付出艰辛的代价,进而强调信在当时社会条件下的重要性。
首先,作家通过信誉的破产来反衬诚信对于维系信客职业和社会秩序的重大意义。老信客一生恪尽职守,克勤克俭,却一时糊涂,动用了雇主的一丝红绸而一失足成千古恨,最终名誉扫地,颜面尽失,乃至自残。从这个故事中,我们发现,信客职业没有任何规范和监督,完全依靠道德诚信自律。信客东窗事发后,也没有任何的惩戒措施,但老信客却悔恨交加,径自用剪刀扎伤了手,用自残的方式在悔恨中结束了自己的信客生涯,并自我流放,在坟场的破草房里,夜夜失眠。老信客信誉破产后,受到诚信的召唤和驱使,主动去寻找新的接班人,并言传身教,用自己血淋淋的教训告诫和嘱托年轻信客重塑信客声誉,坚守信客职业的神圣。这一切的一切,并不来自于法律和制度,而完全是在社会崇信的道德秩序下依靠道德自律来运转的。
其次,文章通过信客选择职业的轻率转变为对以信为荣的信客职业的理解和执着,反映出信客对于树立诚信丰碑的美好追求和不懈奋斗。
年轻信客在外闯荡失败,落魄穷困,遭遇了老信客在信誉破产后,信客职业自觉自律的重塑的邂逅。一开始,年轻人并没有答应接班,但是迫于老信客诚恳、认真的态度,才草率的同意成为新的信客。但当年轻的信客踏上老信客的风尘苦旅之后,他看到了老信客期待的眼睛,看到了重塑信客神圣信誉的召唤。信客收入微薄,风餐露宿,但是年轻信客却甘愿付上自己的一生去完成信客神圣的使命,这正是诚信的道德力量在社会生活中根深蒂固的影响力,是诚信的驱使,使年轻人走向追求道德圣洁的不归之路。信客的职业,即是诚信这种美好的道德文化在社会生活中的表现。
第二部分,叙写了信客因信称义,在世俗社会挑战中坚守职业信托的艰难生涯。
信客的工作琐碎复杂,信客的回报与付出不成比例,信客的职业是农业社会向城市的窥探。但是年轻的信客任劳任怨,经受住了考验。他出于强烈的职业道德和使命,不仅完满的完成了份内的工作,而且负有同情心和使命感,做了很多额外的工作,坚守了美好的道德品格和优良的职业素质。
信客挑着一副生死祸福的重担,来回奔忙。四乡的外出谋生者,都把自己的血汗和眼泪,堆在信客身上。他理解在外谋生者,也理解在家的家属,理解他们的需要与感情。事情不分份内份外,只要有求于他,再辛苦也在所不辞,有时候还得忍受无端的猜疑与羞辱。
信客的工作,即是信的神圣信念在信客工作中的自觉能动,是信客职业的集体意识在改造世俗社会的体现,是信作为道德力量在人们生产生活中的实践和传递。
第三部分,叙写了信客因信誉受污而导致的辞职风波。信客的职业是建立在神圣道德和信用关系上的,因此,信客可以任劳任怨,可以忍耐贫困潦倒,但是却不能容忍怀疑和诬陷。老信客仅仅裁下窄窄的一条红绸,被人糟蹋了一生名誉,再也做不起人。信客通报噩耗,有的农妇竟把他当作死神冤鬼,大声呵斥。送交遗物,还被人怀疑贪占。那个发了财拈花惹草的同乡竟诬称信客为小偷,扭送巡捕房,几经周折,才得以平安脱身。信客这条路布满凶险,叫人支撑不了。
信客蒙受诬陷后,依然显示了美好的品德。他在发财的同乡那里遭遇了凶险,他不想让在外的同乡蒙受阴影,回乡后也没有挑事,只是借身体不好为缘由推脱,并在老信客的坟头乞求原谅,至始至终没有说任何坏话,他;ち艘桓黾彝。在当事人忏悔后,打算对信客进行补偿,信客却恭敬推脱,没有收受钱财,并出于礼节的收下了同乡的礼物,可谓忠诚本分、与人为善、富贵不能淫。
这部分的叙写有着些许的悲剧气息,信客的美好品德,在逐渐向外向钱看的社会中越来越受到打击和摧毁。而伴随着信客的辞职,信客这种职业也因外界信息社会的迅速发展而最终消亡。信客也因坚守内心纯净世界诚信至上的信念而丝毫没有向世俗社会妥协。信客受尽磨难没有赢得理解,受尽屈辱而没能获得尊重,受尽冤屈却没有获得补偿,故事的情节仿佛落入了世俗怨恨中的那种好心没好报的诅咒当中。而从社会发展的观点来看,信客的职业在民间的消亡,包括信客所遭遇到的不公,实际上是信客这种职业赖以生存的小农生产关系在社会发展中的解体,是社会转型时期,作为意识层次的道德力量“信”在社会转型时期受到的冲击。
第四部分,通过信客的转业成功。反映了信客虽然职业消亡,但是其美好的品德却穿越时空,依然在其他领域生根发芽,创造出巨大的财富,暗示了诚信永远不会过时的潜台词。
信客年轻时屡屡碰壁,穷愁潦倒,后接受信客职业,眼界开阔了,阅历丰富了,辞职后不久,就成功胜任了地理老师,并一路顺风顺水,成为文化教育的标杆人物。他当教师是好样的教师,当校长是好样的校长,他赢得了社会普遍的赞誉。死后,按照遗愿葬在老信客的身旁,荣誉照耀了信客的历史,成为信客职业最后的丰碑。
如果说第三部分是悲剧的,那么第四部分则渗透着些许的喜剧氛围,信客的职业随着小农经济的解体最终寿终正寝,信客在社会生活中没有向世俗妥协似乎走向了再次自被流放,但是,作为诚信,这种千百年来为信客职业所践行、完善和守护的美好的品德,却并没有消亡,反而穿透社会世俗的羁绊,从死里复活,爆发出强大的力量和价值,成为人们心目中追求美好品德的丰碑。
文章《信客》就是这样,它在朴实的叙事风格中,把复杂深刻的历史思想和文化通过乡间两个不知名姓的信客平凡的人生遭遇表达出来,深入浅出,平易近人,发人省醒。
 
课题项目:湖南省洞庭湖生态经济区建设与发展协同创新中心之“人文洞庭”项目(湘教通【2015】351号)。
 

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