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浅析张悦然作品中冷色调意象的运用

论文查重   作者:陈颖   时间:2017-09-28    阅读:


浅析张悦然作品中冷色调意象的运用
陈颖  西北师范大学
摘要:张悦然的小说以青春期的少年成长入笔,文字绮丽唯美、明净而又感伤、凄婉中又带点残忍。她在小说中经常运用一些冷色调意象,为作品营造出阴郁的氛围,从而体现其作品的酷虐风格。
关键词:张悦然;意象
“80后”作家中,张悦然的文学创作获得了引人侧目的成就。她发表了《红鞋》、《十爱》《誓鸟》等多部畅销长篇小说。她擅长用富丽的措辞,形成凄美忧郁的气氛,被叫作“玉女作家”。其作品的特色之处就在于其运用了近乎残忍的零度叙述方式,表现少年们伤痕累累的成长过程,进而揭示少年内心最隐秘的情感体验。
“意象是客观物象经过创作主体独特的审美活动而创造出来的物化或固化后的一种艺术形象(形象雏形),是主体与客体、心与物、意与象的有机融和统一; 是主观情思与客观物象相融合的产物。 它是融入了主观情意的客观物象,它是借助客观物象表现的主观情意。 也就是说从写作者的作品中使用的‘象’,我们可以探寻写作者的胸中之臆,话外之音。 ”[1]张悦然以酷虐手法进行创作,运用大量冷色调意象营造了阴郁的氛围,表达青春期的少年成长过程中细腻的思想情感变化及成长体验。
一、生冷怪癖的意象
张悦然作品中运用了许多生冷怪癖的意象,产生了一种阴郁的环境气氛。
水仙是其作品中常用的意象,它在文学里基本是象征不染纤、有纯真的心、孤独自傲、自命不凡的个性,而在《小染》中,水仙成了作者的发泄物品,冷酷残暴。因为小染从小就生活在一个没有给她关爱的家庭,所以她的心里会有一种怪癖、偏执的心理。小说中描写“我”经;崮米乓话鸭舻,将这把剪刀插在水仙花的根部,水仙花就会流出像鲜血一样的汁液,汁液会流到“我”的手上,而剪刀是凉的,这就像是在杀人一样,似乎汁液就像是被杀死的人的血液一样沾满了“我”的手,“我”已经把水仙花当成了她负面情绪发泄的工具,在这个过程中“我”获得了快感,释放了心中的不满,绝望的情绪。冰清玉洁、孤芳自赏的水仙身上又承载了“我”内心的情感和体验,它拥有了“我”的快乐与悲伤,成为主人公小染在缺爱的家庭环境中的一种特殊心境和某种情绪体验符号,同时也暗示作者会以残虐血腥的悲剧收场。
猫也是她众多作品中频繁用到的意象。这些作品中出现的猫大都是黑色的,睁着又圆又亮,惶恐的眼睛,并且这些猫的结局都是悲惨的!逗诿ú凰防锬拿羌诘,泛着让人绝望的冷光,它大睁着眼睛,匍伏在低矮地屋檐下日复一日的过着担惊受怕的生活,黑猫墨墨因为追求自己的爱情而遭到主人公父亲的虐待致使墨墨变残,最后又遭到男主人公的抛弃,冻死在雪地里,蚂蚁也将墨墨的身体吃空,场面难以直视!妒哪瘛分幸灿忻ǖ囊庀,这是一只流浪猫,眼睛里也流露着同样惊恐不安的眼神,它为了满足主人公生产咖啡豆的需求,最后惨遭开肠破肚。张悦然作品中猫的意象通常都是天天带着惊恐不安,随时面临危险的心生活,想要摆脱而又无法逃脱的悲惨命运,猫的意象既是对青春期少年成长过程中对于青春的恐慌又是营造了阴冷的氛围。
二、带有复仇性质的意象和死亡意象
杨义在他的《中国叙事学》中提及“意象”是这样表述的:“借助于某个独特的表象蕴含着独到的意义,成为形象叙述过程中的闪光的质点。但它对意义的表达又不是借助议论,而是借助于有意味的表象的选择, 在暗示和联想中把意义蕴含于其间。”[2]而《红鞋》这篇小说中,“红鞋”和“血”就是这种意象,而且是带有复仇意味的意象!逗煨防锷笔稚绷伺⒌哪盖字,又看见了这个母亲的孩子,女孩的脚上穿着母亲的“红鞋”,这是他们初次见面。过了六年他们又意外的见面了,女孩脚上还是那双“红鞋”。这双“红鞋”也成了以后杀手寻找她的线索。文章中再三运用到“红鞋”意象,意味着女孩母亲的复仇意念一直跟着杀手。“血”这个意象在文学世界中出现的及其频繁,它代表着新希望,生命的新生和无限的活力。“血”这一意象在这部作品里再三运用,例如女孩鞋上的“血”,她虐杀鸡、麻雀等的血,结局中杀手死去的“血”等,都展现了作者近乎残忍的零度叙述方式。而女孩之所以具有母亲报仇的残暴,也有一部分的可能是归因于身体里也流淌着母亲的血液。
“陆杨认为,死亡可以审美的原因是艺术,他认为艺术中死亡的审美价值在于通过艺术的中介,可以化死亡之丑为艺术之美。”[3]审美态度上张悦然推许酷虐美,其作品中常有血淋淋的场面,杀人、虐杀动物,自虐的场景甚至于死亡场面,残忍暴虐且不动声色,而表现出来的是华丽浓艳幽闭之美,运用死亡意象表达疼痛的快感。
《红鞋》中描述“穿红鞋的女孩”:“他们看到一个稚气未脱的美貌少女的身边堆满了肢解的动物,拧断脖子的鸡,掏干净五脏的麻雀;褂屑ρ聪碌淖,插满骨头的雪堆。”[4]稚气未脱的可爱女孩和残酷暴虐的行为有明显反差,产生了鲜明的对比效果,令人心惊胆战,仿佛置身于恐怖电影之中,通过感官上的强烈震撼而给读者留下较深的印象,而且作者并没有对这个女孩残酷暴虐的行为作出解释或者有意进行批判,让读者觉得这个女孩的这种行为仿佛是与生俱来的,使人不寒而栗。
《誓鸟》中少女淙淙的死,淙淙从楼顶上往下跳,身体像翅膀受伤的鸟一样向下坠,牧师想救她,但还是没能抓住她,只触碰到了她冰凉带伤的脚一瞬间,淙淙最终还是坠地而死了,血液把她的白裙染得极红,场面甚是惨烈。令人触目惊心的血淋淋的跳楼情节在张悦然的笔下变得异常凄美,死亡不仅表示解脱,也表示坠向更黑暗的深渊。而在《誓鸟》的最后,作者告诉我们:有人在废弃的城中见过一个眼瞎的女子,她就像鸟一样轻快地掠过地上的尸体,捡起他们身上的贝壳,然后将自己早已满是伤口的脚踩在尸体或是坏了的木梁上翩翩起舞。春池受伤的身体和堆满尸体的城邦的背景和春池跳舞这一华美场景形成鲜明对比,透过她对身体伤痛的承受,可以看到她对爱情的专一和对爱的执念以及为爱献身,她的身体不再是单纯的表面物象,而是升华为和执著、永不放弃、凄美的精神境界结合在一起产生的新的欣赏效果。死亡意象在张悦然细腻的描写中,具有郁烈幽闭之美,带给读者既凄美又痛彻心扉之感。
三、结语
纵观张悦然的小说创作,不难发现其作品一直贯有的酷虐风格。而这种风格呈现的主要艺术方式就是作者对于冷色调意象的运用,作者选取的意象都是生活中常见的事物,将自己的感情投入到这些意象中,借助这些冷色调意象表达了那些难以言说的青春期少年成长过程中隐秘的心理情感体验,把少年在青春期成长中的忧伤、困苦、迷惘与绝望全方位呈现出来,让读者身临其境的感受到这些情绪。每一个故事里作者都是用零度的叙述方式,将冷色调意象放在残酷血腥的场面之中,使故事中人物的伤口被狠狠撕开,赤裸裸的呈现在读者面前,更加震撼读者内心,有了悲剧性和唯美性的冲击,使作品中的情感更能打动读者,产生共鸣。
参考文献:
[1]张悦然.十爱[M],作家出版社,2004(7).
[2]张悦然.誓鸟[M].上海文艺出版社,2010(9).
[3]徐妍.幻想是一种有魔力的资源——张悦然小说中幻想与“酷虐文化”的互证关系[J].南方文坛,2007(4).
[4]庄灵芝.亦真亦幻的意象世界——浅析张悦然小说中的意象表达[J].宿州教育学院学报,2012,2:60—61.
[5]王芳.试论张悦然小说中的阴郁性书写[J].山东师范大学,2015,6.6.

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