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论《极花》人性书写的两歧性

论文查重   作者:崔克君   时间:2017-09-28    阅读:


 
论《极花》人性书写的两歧性
崔克君 西北师范大学
摘要:在贾平凹先生对中国乡村常态世界一以贯之的关注下,《极花》以“拐卖妇女”为切口,再次将大众的视线牵引到贫败焦苦的农村社会现实中,作者借诸文学形式申诉社会现实的同时,也在以一个“农民儿子”的身份积极引导人们去关注社会现实,关注城市化进程中的农村问题,并对现代法治和传统乡土伦理关系作出思考。
关键词:妇女拐卖;法律;传统伦理 ;人性
《极花》作为贾平凹先生的又一力作,在对社会热点,即妇女拐卖和大龄未婚男性的生存现状的关注下,更深层次的引导人们对中国农村现状及未来发展前景进行积极思考!都ā返墓适陆峁辜蚪嘟舸,讲述了女主人公蝴蝶被人贩子拐卖到西北被迫成为人妇的悲惨过程,在结构安排上,贾平凹先生将笔墨重点着力于蝴蝶在被拐卖后的圪梁村生活情态,以第一人称的口气倾诉了从反抗、逃跑到被强暴、生子的女性心路历程,最后用一个开放式的梦境结束了全文。在文中主要人物的塑造上,老老爷是与村长并立的特殊存在,像当下部分农村一样,圪梁村的生存秩序反映了中国农村统治模式的现状。死而复生的麻子婶一生历经坎坷,她是圪梁村唯一一个还敬神的人,并得到神的指点,学会了剪花花。麻子婶后来死而复生,自称“剪花娘娘”,终日与蝴蝶相伴,如同母亲,并教会蝴蝶剪花花,似乎通过这种古老的手艺,将好运传递给了蝴蝶。文章第二层面的隐喻就是 “极花”和“血葱”这一组意象,极花是像冬虫夏草一样的珍稀东西,它在为圪梁村带来金钱的同时也暴露着人性的贪婪与欲望。而血葱,一种让男男女女吃了血脉喷张的东西,却生长在一群也盛产光棍的地方。这似乎为圪梁村发生拐卖妇女的耻辱行为在找情有可原的理由,这种讽刺实是悲哀。说到这里,贾平凹先生在创作过程中不可能没意识到自己对黑亮及其家人的某些正面塑造,但他坚持这么做的原因也许是想要通过文本的虚构特性对蝴蝶表达心理上的愧疚和同情,更或者是要为圪梁村乃至现实中的男性光棍们减轻舆论的谴责。
贾平凹对人性思考的深刻不仅在于对蝴蝶形象的还原上,还在于他能抵住压力为真正的社会现实申诉。中国自古重男轻女的思想流传到当代的后果就是严重的。文章中有这样一段话甚是精到,“我知道了小时候在河里游泳时是胳膊腿扒拉着水前行的,现在没有水了,走路胳膊腿在扒拉着空气,空气也是水……知道了你用石头凿狮子用纸剪老虎,凿成了剪成了你也会恐惧它。知道了心理有多健康身体就有多健康,心境能改变环境也能改变容颜。”[1]贾平凹先生用俗民的生活智慧说出了人生的大道理,这是他对蝴蝶心境的真实表现,也是他本人对世俗生活最诚恳的哲学,同时表达着贾平凹先生对人性尊严和现实生存之尖锐矛盾的深深无力感。
在人们极力肯定贾平凹先生对社会热点的敏感和表现力的同时,网上却曝出了“贾平凹为人贩子说话”的言论,依据在于小说中安排了蝴蝶最终回到被拐卖而强迫组成的家庭里的情节,对《极花》的这一粗暴评价,就是在维护法律尊严的视角下做出的简单评判。这一情节的安排,丧失了构成完整执法过程的环节功能,直接导致了“法律实现”的失败。然而,值得进一步思考的是:受害者在被解救后重返家庭与社会的过程,是一个重新适应自然与文化环境的过程,新的社会关系和环境与受害者之前的生活环境必定存在一定程度上的差异,而这种差异带给受害者的心理反应是正面可承受的,还是造成了更糟糕的境遇,这是否与法律解救和道德支援的初衷相悖。“为人贩子说话”的愤慨之言背后,网络民众要求的不仅仅是维护法律尊严与社会身份的平等,“这个看似简单分明的故事背后,却蕴含着超越法律范畴的意旨,直指人性的历史文化与现实境遇矛盾冲突的尴尬。”[2]对传统中国民众伦理价值取向的坚持,使拐卖人口的“他者”作为破坏者,侵入本土文化,破坏和损害了“地方”或者“家乡”的乡民关于伦理道德、文化习俗等层面一以贯之的东西,被拐卖者,则远离“家乡”,漂泊异乡。从这个层面来讲,某种程度上最初的“家乡”变成了回不去的记忆里的“家乡”,“异乡”却成了现实中真正的“家乡”, 从“异乡”—“家乡”的这一“反家乡”过程,使“家乡”的内涵已经得到了重新建构。另一方面,对“人口买卖”的批判是基于传统的文化经验出发,那么对当下社会中弱势群体“男无所妻”的人文关注也是不悖于传统道德的审视,从对人口买卖的批判视角里发现人类生存的悲哀现状,这个过程似乎也是“反伦理”的,但现实中国 “男无所妻” 的境况,似乎也在要求我们坚持传统伦理价值的同时,也应当关注“反伦理”群体的价值需求。
参考文献:
[1]孔令燕.回不去的田园:《极花》之痛[N].光明日报,2016,5.10.
[2]何平.中国最后的农村——《极花》论[J].文学评论,2016,03.
[3]韩鲁华.写出乡村背后的隐痛——《极花》阅读札记[J].当代作家评论,2016,03.
[4]陈思思.文明进程中的尴尬与隐痛——《极花》的法律文化解读[J].小说评论,2016,4.
 
 
 


[1]贾平凹《极花》,《人民文学》,2016年第1期,74页。
[2]陈思思,《文明进程中的尴尬与隐痛——<极花>的法律文化解读》,《小说评论》,2016年第4期。

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