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试论多丽丝·莱辛《金色笔记》中人物的创伤原因

论文查重   作者:任媛媛   时间:2017-09-28    阅读:


 
试论多丽丝·莱辛《金色笔记》中人物的创伤原因
任媛媛  南昌航空大学外国语学院
摘要:《金色笔记》作为英国著名女作家多丽丝·莱辛的代表作品,一直以来倍受国内外学者和读者的热情关注,人们对于《金色笔记》的解读也涉及各个理论领域。本文结合弗洛伊德对心理创伤的研究,从创伤理论视角对作品中人物的创伤症状和创伤原因进行分析, 以此更好的理解多丽丝·莱辛笔下的人文关怀。
关键词:多丽丝·莱辛;《金色笔记》;创伤理论
基金项目:南昌航空大学第十一届“三小”重点项目《从创伤理论视角解读丽丝·莱辛的<金色笔记>》,项目编号:2016ZDWY002
创伤“Trauma”这一单词来源于希腊语,原指身体上的伤口,也是人们通常所理解的外部力量造成的物理性伤口。随着研究的深入,词意得到了丰富与扩充,创伤开始囊括了精神方向所遭受的伤害。创伤文学理论是目前学术界的热点话题,已经从心理学和精神分析学说扩展到历史学、社会学、文学、电影等人文学科。多丽丝·莱辛是诺贝尔文学奖获得者,被称为“文坛常青树”的她是一位多产的作家,作品种类包含长篇小说、短篇小说、诗歌、戏剧以及自传,内容涉及众多领域,题材广泛多样、风格独特多变,内容深刻且富含深邃思想,对英国文学乃至世界文学做出了巨大的贡献。
《金色笔记》 中包括一个独立小说《自由女性》和女主人公安娜的五本笔记,其中四本分别记录其作家生活、政治生活、情感生活和精神生活,最后一本“金色笔记”是安娜对人生的总结。
一、文化价值差异的冲击
安娜早期生活的非洲殖民地上存在着黑人与白人隐性对抗,不同的民族、不同的文明和不同的文化碰撞交织,来自欧洲不同国家的白人又带来了不同的意识形态和价值观念。特殊的时代背景营造出存在主义的氛围,使得本身就迷;炻业娜嗣歉用允Я朔较,他们郁郁寡欢而不得志。信仰的缺乏使得人们失去了生存的方向,精神上的创伤慢慢蔓延开来。生活环境;姆,人们怀着更加警觉的心情审视各式各样的文化价值,这也直接推动了非洲殖民地上一群看似狂热的共产主义者的理想追求。
二、后战争时期的混乱现状
《金色笔记》发生在惨绝人寰的世界大战前后,无辜民众的鲜血和民不聊生的经济没能将人们警醒,大型武器的研制、冷战的持续都给人们的生存笼罩上阴影,世纪末日仿佛将要来临。我们通过蓝色笔记中安娜关于战争的剪报便可以了解到动荡的社会带给人们的不安,战争意向的闪回安和恶梦的重复给幸存者们带来无尽的创伤。安娜用这种方式强迫自己一次又一次得到记住战争带来的创伤,也使读者了解到彼时触目惊心的现状。
三、男权社会的性别歧视
在以二元对立为核心的菲勒斯中心主义的影响下,无论是传统女性还是“自由女性”都无法获得平等的对待。长期以来男性是世界的主宰,人们习惯用男性的视角和标准来衡量一切。而女性则是依附主体存在的“他者”。传统的价值观念决定了大多数女性的宿命是与家庭、孩子捆绑在一起,她们长期以来依附于男性,没有独立的经济能力,更没有自己的生活空间,久而久之便失去了自己的潜能和价值。即使是作品中的自由女性也无法完全脱离男性而存在,她们在历史和社会环境等各种因素的影响下,潜意识都无法真正摆脱对男人的依赖和情感需要。这就造成了女性在情感、家庭等方面的创伤,
四、资本主义制度的弊端
两次世界大战的爆发均与资本主义制度下追求利益最大化有密不可分的关系,资本家为扩张势力范围、挖掘更大财富价值。“中非和南非的物质繁荣是可感知的,每一个人都会一下子变得有钱。”开辟非洲殖民地,战争的爆发给本土人民和殖民地人们都带来了无法补救的伤害。白人殖民者在非洲殖民地宣讲反对种族歧视,支持种族之间的平等,但却从真正的尊重黑人,而是不断地压榨、利用当地人民。在英国本土,大资本家和商人手握大量的财富,却没有真正的施于当地人民,人们的劳动价值被剥削,为了生存不得不拼命工作。物质和经济的压力更使得人们的创伤雪上加霜。
五、结语
《金色笔记》是多丽丝·莱辛的代表作之一,带有自传性质的创伤书写让我们更好的了解到她的内心世界,为我们更好地分析多丽丝·莱辛的其他作品提供了便利。通过对作品中人物创伤症状的分析,使我们了解到惨烈的战争、腐朽的制度和淡薄的家庭情感等对人类造成的无法弥补的伤害。作为一个有强烈社会责任感的作家,多丽丝·莱辛结合自身的经历描写小人物的创伤症状,给人们以警示作用的同时也进行着自我治疗,为人们有意识地降低创伤的再次发生提供了可能。
参考文献:
[1]王健会.“创伤”理论与亚裔美国文学批评—以亚裔男性研究为视角[J].外国文学,2010(2):69.
[2]郑素杰.弗洛伊德精神分析理论视域下的弗兰纳里·奥康纳小说研究[D].天津:天津师范大学,2014(37).
[3]多丽丝·莱辛.金色笔记[M].译林出版社,2014(62).
[4]张福海.论海德格尔的本源之思与诗性突围[M].山东师范大学,2011.
[5]朱广华.马斯洛高峰体验思想的美学价值研究[D].广西师范大学,2013.

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